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Cryptogambling / What Is a Smart Contract: An Introduction for Beginners

What Is a Smart Contract: An Introduction for Beginners

Jonas Blackwood
Jonas Blackwood
Publish Date: 02/05/2023

Smart Contract on the Blockchain

Smart contracts are computer programs and transaction protocols designed to automatically execute, control, or document events and actions in accordance with an agreement or contract. As such, smart contracts allow businesses to streamline processes while simplify transactions by offering a safe and efficient means for concluding contractual agreements without third-party intermediaries.

As a participant in a smart contract, you’ll discover that its programs are stored on blockchain technology and run when certain conditions are fulfilled – automating agreement execution without time loss or additional involvement from intermediaries. By understanding smart contract fundamentals, you can unlock blockchain’s potential and revolutionize how business is conducted.

One of the leading platforms for smart contracts is Ethereum, where they form an integral part of its ecosystem. On Ethereum blockchain, smart contracts serve as a type of account to hold balances and be targets of transactions; by using these contracts to build decentralized applications (dApps) or automate various aspects of projects from finance to supply chain management, you can benefit greatly.

What Is a Smart Contract?

A smart contract is a self-executing agreement where its terms are written directly into code, running on blockchain platforms like Ethereum and being activated when certain conditions within an agreement are fulfilled. Their primary function is automating agreement between parties while providing secure transactions without intermediaries or middlemen.

Smart contracts can be seen as digital versions of traditional contracts with added advantages. For example, smart contracts are tamper-proof – meaning once deployed they cannot be altered. Furthermore, they can automatically execute actions based on predefined rules to reduce third party involvement and fraud risks while eliminating risks related to manipulation and manipulation.

Developers can build applications atop blockchain platforms to take advantage of their robust security, reliability and accessibility; offering peer-to-peer functionality like loans, insurance policies, logistics or gaming among many others.

Here are the key components of smart contracts:

  • Autonomy: Smart contracts operate autonomously based on pre-programmed conditions without human interference, without needing human approval.
  • Decentralization: Contract code is stored across a distributed network of nodes to provide security and eliminate central authorities as part of their organization structure.
  • Transparency: Contract and transaction details are visible to all parties involved, building trust between parties while reducing disputes.
  • Immutability: Once deployed, smart contract codes cannot be altered once deployed ensuring terms of agreements remain safe from modification.

As you begin exploring smart contracts and blockchain technology, it’s crucial to fully grasp their core concepts and benefits to fully realize its transformative power across industries.

How Smart Contracts Work

Smart contracts are an innovative technology that allows users to automate the execution of agreements without an intermediary, eliminating time and costs in reaching agreement across a blockchain network. Here is a brief explanation on how they operate.

Executing Code

Smart contracts are programs stored on a blockchain that execute when certain conditions are met. When creating a smart contract, you write code that defines its rules and conditions – this code is then stored on the blockchain making it accessible to all participants of that contract.

Once conditions specified in your smart contract are fulfilled, its code is executed automatically. For instance, if your smart contract is set up to transfer funds when specific payments arrive on blockchain technology, your contract’s code will execute when payments appear and transfer them without manual intervention from third-parties – eliminating third-party involvement altogether.

Consensus Mechanism

Within a decentralized system such as blockchains, all participants must agree on the state of the network in order to reach consensus. There are multiple types of consensus mechanisms such as Proof of Work (used in Bitcoin) and Proof of Stake ( used by Ethereum 2.0).

Smart contracts undergo a process of validation and verification by network nodes when executed, to ensure they’re performing as intended and adhering to established rules. Once consensus has been reached on what’s happening with each smart contract output transaction, its outputs are added onto blockchain as a new transaction record.

Attaining consensus ensures that smart contracts are safe, transparent and tamper-proof – building trust among participants while creating a reliable system for conducting transactions and agreements.

Advantages of Smart Contracts

Smart contracts provide many advantages for both individuals and businesses alike. Here, we will examine their advantages with respect to security, transparency, efficiency, and reduced costs.


Smart contracts provide unparalleled transaction security. Operating on blockchain technology, these contracts are virtually tamper-proof due to their decentralized nature and use of cryptographic techniques to encrypt data – giving you peace of mind knowing your agreements are protected from fraudulent activities or any unauthorized changes source.


Another significant benefit of smart contracts is transparency. All details, such as terms and conditions, of a smart contract are visible to all parties involved allowing easy tracking with complete visibility along the way source. Furthermore, due to being public blockchains they also make information easily accessible and verifiable source.


Smart contracts have the power to dramatically enhance business operations efficiency. Once conditions have been fulfilled, these self-executing contracts automatically execute the agreed-upon terms and conditions automatically without needing manual intervention or the risk of human error sources. This automation saves both time and resources by eliminating manual intervention requirements while decreasing human error potentials.

Reduced Costs

Smart contracts offer another key benefit of decreased costs: they run on blockchain networks and remove intermediaries like lawyers and banks as needed, leading to savings through reduced fees and commissions for third-party involvement sources.

Limitations and Risks

As you investigate smart contracts, it’s essential to recognize their limitations and risks. This section will detail some of these concerns such as scalability issues, code vulnerabilities, legal, regulatory issues etc.

Scalability Issues

One of the primary stumbling blocks to successfully implementing smart contracts lies within their scalability. Due to blockchain’s decentralized nature, all transactions must be processed and verified by nodes in its network, which may result in slower transaction speeds and higher costs as more users and contracts come online – thus rendering its scalability an essential aspect for its use in various industries.

Code Vulnerabilities

Smart contracts are autonomous programs, similar to software. Like any piece of code, smart contracts may contain vulnerabilities and bugs which could be exploited by malicious actors to cause significant financial loss for those involved. Since smart contracts reside on immutable blockchain networks like Ethereum and require time and expense to correct (Corporate Finance Institute). Therefore it’s crucial that any code changes be thoroughly tested prior to deployment for errors that might cause problems down the road – or at least to detect possible ones and protect your investments proactively before moving ahead with deployment to avoid potential issues before.

Smart contracts remain relatively new technology and thus pose legal and regulatory obstacles. There may be uncertainties over their legal standing or enforceability – particularly if involving parties from different jurisdictions – while using smart contracts may raise privacy or data protection concerns since transactions are recorded on an immutable public ledger.

Use Cases and Industry Applications

Smart contracts have multiple uses across various industries. Here we will cover some of their most prevalent uses such as finance, supply chain management, real estate investment and insurance.


Smart Contracts Play A Key Role In Decentralized Finance. Within the finance industry, smart contracts play an essential role in decentralized finance (DeFi) applications. DeFi offers trustless, transparent, and immutable alternatives to traditional financial services through blockchain and smart contract technology . Using these smart contracts, financial services such as lending, borrowing and trading can be automated reducing intermediaries while streamlining processes.

Supply Chain Management

Smart contracts can have a tremendously positive effect in supply chain management. By automating transactions and record-keeping using digital signatures and pre-set conditions, smart contracts help track goods throughout their journey from source to market with greater transparency and security than manual tracking methods could. Furthermore, they reduce data discrepancies, fraud allegations, disputes while increasing operational efficiency and traceability – creating greater operational efficiencies overall.

Real Estate

Smart contracts offer real estate transactions a reliable solution to streamline processes like buying, selling and leasing properties. By providing secure methods of ownership transfer with digital signatures and escrow services, these smart contracts reduce fraud, human errors and dependency on intermediaries while making transactions more transparent and efficient. Furthermore, they automate rent payments to decrease late fees and prevent potential disputes that can arise during this process.


Smart contracts offer immense potential within the insurance sector. They can streamline processes like claims management and data collection. Insurance policies can also be set up as smart contracts to allow for payouts upon claim when certain conditions are fulfilled – eliminating manual intervention while guaranteeing timely payments.

In this section, you will gain an understanding of popular platforms for creating and deploying smart contracts – specifically Ethereum, Cardano and Tezos. Each subsection below covers these technologies further.


Ethereum is the premier and widely-used platform for developing and executing smart contracts, facilitating the creation of numerous decentralized applications (DApps) and tokens. As its pioneer in this space, Ethereum has opened the way to an unprecedented range of smart contract developments and implementation.

One of the key features of Ethereum is its Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), a Turing Complete 256-bit virtual machine used for smart contract execution.


Cardano, like Ethereum and EOS, provides another powerful platform for creating and executing smart contracts. Established with research-first in mind, its primary goal is to offer a safer and scalable environment for building decentralized applications.

Cardano’s smart contract capabilities run on their Plutus platform, which uses Haskell programming language as part of its implementation for enhanced security and formal verification. This decision helps Cardano ensure a high standard of security and formal verification.


Tezos is an evolving blockchain platform designed to facilitate the creation and deployment of smart contracts. Like its competitors Ethereum and Cardano, Tezos aims to provide a strong base upon which decentralized apps may be built.

Tezos stands out by using an innovative consensus algorithm called Liquid Proof-of-Stake (LPoS). This approach allows for democratic governance as well as flexible implementation of its protocol.

Finding the ideal smart contract platform for your project depends on both your requirements and its specific features. When making this decision, take into account factors like security, scalability and programming languages used when making your choice.

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